LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP REPORT OF CARDIAC TOXICITY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA TREATED WITH TANDEM AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION
Background. Tandem autologous hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (ta-HSCT) is a standard treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Patients receive high-dose cyclophosphamide (CY), followed by two myeloablative cycles of melphalan (MEL). There are scarce data about long term cardiotoxicity.
Patients and methods. We studied 12 patients (62.25 ± 8.55 years) six years after completion of MM treatment with ta-HCST. Late cardiotoxic effects were evaluated clinically and echocardiographically.
Results. None of the patients developed clinical signs of heart failure, all were in sinus rhythm and NT-pro BNP concentration was elevated (778 ± 902.76 pg/mL). The left ventricular (LV) size remained normal. The LV ejection fraction did not decrease (73.75 ± 5.67%, 69.27 ± 6.13%, p = NS). The LV diastolic function parameters (E, A, ratio E/A and A/a) did not change significantly. In tissue Doppler parameters we observed a nonsignificant decrease in Em (10.26 ± 2.63 cm/s, 7.57 ± 1.43 cm/s) and Sm velocities (8.7 ± 0.87 cm/s, 7.14 ± 1.17 cm/s, p = NS). The E/Em values were in an abnormal range (8.66 ± 1.05, 10.55 ± 2.03).
Conclusion. The treatment of MM with ta-HSCT, during which patients receive high dose CY followed by two myeloablative cycles of MEL, causes mild, chronic, partially reversible and clinically silent cardiotoxic side-effects. However, ta-HSCT in patients with MM is a safe regarding cardiotoxic side effects, but because of increasing life expectancy needs long term attention.